Plastic surgeries are becoming increasingly common in today’s world. As modern medicine continues to evolve day by day, many sub specialities have come up under plastic surgery. One of the sub specialities of cosmetic or plastic surgery today is cosmetic oculoplastic surgery. Cosmetic oculoplastic surgery is the surgery done on the ocular structures of the face i.e. the area around the eyes. Cosmetic oculoplastic surgery also involves repair and reconstruction of the other supporting structures of the eyes such as the eyebrows, cheeks, eyelids etc. it is also known as Ocular facial surgery.
The primary aim of cosmetic oculoplastic surgery is the reconstruction of the ocular or the orbital area. The eye orbit is a hollow bone structure in which are eyes are housed. There are other nerves and muscles which are needed for blood supply in the orbital area as well. The eyes are protected by a layer of fatty tissues which provide cushion effect. Eye can be damaged or affected due to various reasons. Trauma, infection, inflammation etc. are some of the most common reasons. Cosmetic oculoplastic surgery is also often done for reconstruction purposes once the tumours of the orbit are removed. Orbital tumours may grow within the orbit and may also originate in the surrounding structures and eventually invade the orbit. Removal of orbital tumours calls for cosmetic oculoplastic surgery in most cases. The orbital area and the eyes consist of a complex network of nerves which are not only very complicated but are easily damageable as well. Therefore, only an oculoplastic specialist should perform cosmetic oculoplastic surgery.
Surgeries performed by cosmetic oculoplastic surgeons:-
Cosmetic oculoplastic surgery can further be divided in to three types of surgeries that are performed under this sub- specialty. These surgeries are:-
- Facial Oculoplastic surgery: – Facial oculoplastic surgery is done on the facial features which are near the eyes or support the eyes. Cheek lift and forehead lift may be considered to be cosmetic oculoplastic surgery. Brow lift which can be of direct, indirect or endoscopic type may also be performed by cosmetic oculoplastic surgeons. Other cosmetic procedures done for the improvement of quality of skin around the eyes like Botox for crow’s feet, forehead wrinkles, CO2 resurfacing, chemical peels etc. are also facial oculoplastic surgery specialties.
- Surgery of the eyelids: – One of the most common surgeries of the eyelids is known as blepharoplasty which is most commonly done on the upper eyelids to correct the droopiness of the eyelids. It is done by removing the excess skin which may be causing the droopiness or the malposition of the eyelids. Ageing causes the skin to sag and this also causes the muscles to droop from the upper eyelids. This loose skin hinders the vision of the patient. Eyelid surgery corrects the excess skin, drooping, puffiness under the eyes and the loose skin on the lower eyelids also. This surgery is often carried out to improve the elasticity of eyelids as well. Eyelids serve many functions the most important of which are the protection and the well- being of our eyes. Decreased fat in the skin which happens due to ageing causes the skin to become loose. Mostly, the upper eyelids are treated in conjunction with the eyebrows and the lower eyelids are treated in conjunction with the cheeks. This can make the person look youthful also. Eyelid surgery is also often carried out after the removal of basal cell carcinoma which is a common type of cancer which occurs on the eyelids. Eyelid surgery is carried out with brow lift also which causes repositioning of the eyebrow. The purpose of doing blepharoplasty along with brow lift is to achieve more natural looking results. One important thing to remember however is that the treatment approach is different for men and women. This surgery can also restore the balance between the eyebrows and the eyelids. This surgery is not very complex and is often completed in a short time.
- Orbital surgery: – Orbital surgery is mostly performed due to two reasons; orbital trauma and orbital cancers. Orbital trauma may cause orbital fractures to occur which can be corrected by orbital surgery. In case of orbital tumours, the removal of tumour may cause need for reconstruction for restoration of aesthetics and function. This can all be carried out by cosmetic oculoplastic surgery.
Minor risks and complications may occur in cosmetic oculoplastic surgeries. But if a patient experiences any abnormality after the procedure, it is highly advisable to contact the surgeon or the doctor immediately. Any minor lapse in the post- operative care can cause severe consequent damage.
To avoid any complication once the procedure is complete, the instructions from the doctor should be strictly adhered to. This can help a patient in reaping full benefits from the procedure as well as avoid and post- surgical mishaps.